This API will be removed in a future major version of React. Use renderToPipeableStream instead.

renderToNodeStream renders a React tree to a Node.js Readable Stream.

const stream = renderToNodeStream(reactNode, options?)


renderToNodeStream(reactNode, options?)

On the server, call renderToNodeStream to get a Node.js Readable Stream which you can pipe into the response.

import { renderToNodeStream } from 'react-dom/server';

const stream = renderToNodeStream(<App />);

On the client, call hydrateRoot to make the server-generated HTML interactive.

See more examples below.


  • reactNode: A React node you want to render to HTML. For example, a JSX element like <App />.

  • optional options: An object for server render.

    • optional identifierPrefix: A string prefix React uses for IDs generated by useId. Useful to avoid conflicts when using multiple roots on the same page. Must be the same prefix as passed to hydrateRoot.


A Node.js Readable Stream that outputs an HTML string.


  • This method will wait for all Suspense boundaries to complete before returning any output.

  • As of React 18, this method buffers all of its output, so it doesn’t actually provide any streaming benefits. This is why it’s recommended that you migrate to renderToPipeableStream instead.

  • The returned stream is a byte stream encoded in utf-8. If you need a stream in another encoding, take a look at a project like iconv-lite, which provides transform streams for transcoding text.


Rendering a React tree as HTML to a Node.js Readable Stream

Call renderToNodeStream to get a Node.js Readable Stream which you can pipe to your server response:

import { renderToNodeStream } from 'react-dom/server';

// The route handler syntax depends on your backend framework
app.use('/', (request, response) => {
const stream = renderToNodeStream(<App />);

The stream will produce the initial non-interactive HTML output of your React components. On the client, you will need to call hydrateRoot to hydrate that server-generated HTML and make it interactive.